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term User-Centered Design stands for user-centered design. In
practice, it is an approach to interactive systems development that
aims to make systems usable by focusing on users, their needs and
requirements. The development process is iterative, i.e. one that
needs verification and improvement of the steps and solutions taken.
In each of the User-Centered Design methods, four basic phases can be
distinguished in each iteration. They are analysis, design,
evaluation and implementation. Such a four-component configuration is
repeatable so as not to repeat the mistakes made in the next stages,
until our product is improved and left without defects. This pattern
can be repeated endlessly, as technology changes, and so does the
on the User Centered Design definition, it should be noted that it
largely focuses on the use of the system and the application of human
factors as well as knowledge and usability techniques. User-centered
design is a practical approach to problem solving that, when properly
divided into stages, allows for the creation of innovative and
creative solutions. The individual stages are divided into
inspirations, ideations and implementations.
phase of inspiration is the definition of the research problem and
goal of the activity, interviews with users. At the ideation stage,
for example, storyboards, customer journeys, business model canvas or
preliminary sketches of prototypes, i.e. graphic representations of
ideas for possible solutions to the problem, are prepared.
Implementation is the time to put your ideas into practice. It
consists in testing solutions, measuring their performance, and ends
with the analysis and interpretation of evaluation results.
basic concept that defines the features of a product with a good user
experience is usability. According to the ISO definition (ISO
Standard is the User-Centered Design methodology formalized by the
International Organization for Standardization), it is a measure of
the efficiency, effectiveness and user satisfaction with which a
given product can be used to achieve given goals by given users in a
given context. Systems and products that are useful have many
benefits, such as improved productivity, increased user satisfaction
with the use of the product and increased availability.
is defined by 5 attributes that are worth mentioning here. They have
been described by the Nielsen Norman Group - a company founded by the
pioneers of User Experience, i.e. Don Norman and Jackob Nielsen. The
mentioned attributes are:
Ability for users to learn basic tasks when they first encounter a
given system / process,
Efficiency, i.e. how quickly the user can solve and undertake tasks
after becoming familiar with the design,
Ability to remember functions and options of the system needed for
proper use after a certain time of not using it,
Errors, i.e. how many mistakes the user makes, how serious these
errors are and how he copes with solving them
Satisfaction, or how pleasant it is to use the designed system.
something is unclear in the application, we do not know why there are
continuous errors, we cannot find the information we need, we will
probably give up using such a solution. Therefore, usability plays a
key role in the design process as it allows our products and systems
to survive among users. If something has clearly defined rules and
informs about steps taken or mistakes, it is easier to adapt to such
a solution and to use it is pleasant.
Nielsen stated in one of his articles that utility does not need to
be measured in order to improve it. However, there are several
methods of improving it that are used in the evaluation phase of the
project. The most popular method is usability testing, also known as
user tests or task tests. It is possible to conduct an evaluation by
means of tests at each of these stages, where we have a specific
subject of the study. Task tests are used to test the interface by
the user in the presence of a moderator according to a predefined
test scenario. The research scenario may contain a few simple tasks
to be performed, starting from easier ones like searching for
something to more difficult ones like filtering or adding / removing.
The course of the study is usually recorded or observed by another
researcher or client.
in-depth analysis of the test results is a source of much valuable
information, helps to improve the product and verify any errors.
Through testing with users, many aspects of the product are
Understanding the purpose of the product and its possible functions,
Correct use of functionality,
The natural sequence of actions following one another,
Hierarchy of elements and their availability,
Elimination of problems related to the user's movement in the
important stage at the level of defining usability in the context of
the project is to check the already available solutions and identify
their advantages and disadvantages. This procedure is called
competition analysis, or benchmarking.
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